Ernest Hemingway, one of the most renowned American writers in history, left behind a legacy of literary works that continues to captivate readers and scholars alike. The question of how many books he actually wrote may seem straightforward, but it is shrouded in debate and nuances. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of Hemingway’s bibliography and explore why this seemingly simple question sparks so much discussion.
Hemingway’s 16 Agreed Upon Books
Let’s begin with the 16 books that virtually everyone agrees count as legitimate works in Ernest Hemingway’s bibliography. These include 7 novels, 6 short story collections, and 3 non-fiction books. They were primarily published during his lifetime or were actively being worked on by Hemingway when he passed away. These are the core of his literary legacy:
- The Torrents of Spring (1926)
- The Sun Also Rises (1926)
- A Farewell to Arms (1929)
- To Have and Have Not (1937)
- For Whom The Bell Tolls (1940)
- Across the River and into the Trees (1950)
- The Old Man and the Sea (1952)
Hemingway’s Short Story Collections
- Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923): Hemingway’s debut collection, this book showcased his early writing style and themes. While not widely known, it provides a glimpse into the budding talent of the young author.
- In Our Time (1924 with 1925 expanded reprint): This collection is considered a significant milestone in Hemingway’s career. It introduced readers to his trademark “Iceberg Theory,” where much is left unsaid, allowing readers to infer deeper meanings. The expanded edition in 1925 further solidified his reputation as a literary innovator.
- Men Without Women (1927): This collection explores themes of love, loss, and the impact of war on relationships. Hemingway’s crisp prose and vivid characterizations are on full display, making it a poignant addition to his body of work.
- Winner Take Nothing (1933): Continuing his exploration of the human psyche, this collection delves into themes of despair, disillusionment, and the fragile nature of existence. It is a somber yet masterful work that showcases Hemingway’s evolving storytelling abilities.
- The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories (1938): This volume combines Hemingway’s earlier short story collections and includes some of his most iconic tales, such as “The Killers” and “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.” It’s a comprehensive collection that demonstrates his range as a storyteller.
- The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories (1961): Published posthumously, this collection is a treasure trove of Hemingway’s short stories. It includes some of his final works and provides readers with a glimpse into his continued growth as a writer until the end of his life.
Hemingway Books in Dispute
Beyond the 16 agreed-upon books, there exists a category of Hemingway’s works that falls into the realm of “disputed” books. These are often posthumous publications, and they continue to generate substantial debate among scholars, collectors, and avid readers.
1. Islands in the Stream (1970):
This novel, published in 1970, is generally accepted by many scholars as a legitimate part of Hemingway’s canon. “Islands in the Stream” explores themes of isolation and introspection, drawing readers into the world of the protagonist, Thomas Hudson, a painter and fisherman. Its publication was met with a positive reception, cementing its place among Hemingway’s posthumous works.
2. The Garden of Eden (1986):
Published in 1986, “The Garden of Eden” was a novel that Hemingway had been working on for 15 years during his lifetime. This book delves into themes of identity, gender, and sexual exploration, making it a unique departure from some of his earlier works. It is widely accepted as part of the Hemingway canon and showcases the author’s evolving writing style.
3. The Dangerous Summer (1985):
“The Dangerous Summer” was released in 1985 as a non-fiction work. Hemingway had worked on it during the last two years of his life, examining the intense rivalry between two bullfighters. Given Hemingway’s longstanding interest in bullfighting, this work is considered by many as part of his literary legacy, although it remains a topic of debate, especially within academic circles.
4. True at First Light (1999):
“True at First Light” is perhaps the most contentious among Hemingway’s posthumous publications. Released in 1999, it is based on his East African safari with his fourth wife in the early 1950s. While some argue that this work should be included in Hemingway’s canon due to its substantial content, it has also sparked significant disagreement. Critics question whether it should be considered an edited and later released book or if it strays too far from Hemingway’s intended vision.
These posthumous novels, with their diverse themes and styles, continue to fuel the debate over Hemingway’s literary output. While some readily embrace them as integral parts of his bibliography, others scrutinize their authenticity and fit within the broader context of his oeuvre. Regardless of the ongoing disputes, these works offer readers further insights into the mind of a literary giant whose influence endures in the world of literature. Hemingway’s ability to provoke discussion and contemplation even after his passing speaks to the enduring power of his storytelling.
Other “Hemingway Books” Published After His Death
In addition to the 16 agreed-upon books and the disputed posthumous novels, there exist several collections that, while containing Hemingway’s works, are not typically considered part of his core canon. These collections often gather his past articles, journalistic pieces, or stories from magazines into book form. While some enthusiasts may argue for their inclusion, they are generally perceived as outside collections of Hemingway’s work, distinct from his recognized body of literary works. Here are a few examples:
Hemingway, The Wild Years (1962):
Published in 1962, this collection assembles various writings from Hemingway’s early career, including newspaper articles, essays, and short stories. While it offers valuable insights into his formative years as a writer, it is not commonly regarded as integral to his canon.
By-Line: Ernest Hemingway (1967):
Released in 1967, this volume compiles Hemingway’s journalistic pieces from his time as a war correspondent during the Spanish Civil War and World War II. It provides a glimpse into his experiences as a reporter but is generally viewed as a separate collection from his major literary works.
Ernest Hemingway: Cub Reporter (1970):
In 1970, this collection brought together Hemingway’s early journalism, much of which was published in the Kansas City Star during his youth. While these writings shed light on his development as a writer, they are considered a distinct category from his celebrated novels and short stories.
Dateline: Toronto (1985):
Published in 1985, this collection focuses on Hemingway’s time as a journalist in Toronto. It gathers pieces he wrote for the Toronto Star Weekly in the early 1920s. While these writings contribute to the understanding of his early career, they do not form part of his central literary canon.
Under Kilimanjaro (2005):
Released in 2005, this book consists of a novel and some short stories based on Hemingway’s experiences in Africa. However, it is not widely regarded as a core work and is often seen as an outside collection.
While these collections provide valuable glimpses into Hemingway’s evolution as a writer and his journalistic endeavors, they are typically distinguished from his essential literary contributions. Hemingway’s core canon consists of his novels, short stories, and non-fiction works that have left an indelible mark on the world of literature and continue to resonate with readers worldwide.
The Legacy of Hemingway’s Work
Ernest Hemingway’s prolific literary career leaves us with a fascinating debate over the number of books attributed to him. Whether you lean towards the conservative count of 16, the moderate estimate of 19, or even a broader view of around 20 books, each perspective has its valid arguments. The enduring legacy of this literary giant ensures that the discussion surrounding his body of work will continue for generations to come.
Hemingway’s works, regardless of the exact count, remain a testament to his enduring influence on American literature. His sparse and direct prose style, often referred to as the “Iceberg Theory,” revolutionized modern storytelling and had a profound impact on subsequent generations of writers.
- The themes explored in Hemingway’s works also contribute to his lasting significance. His novels and short stories frequently delve into concepts of masculinity, courage, war, and the human condition. Hemingway’s portrayal of characters facing existential crises in the midst of chaos and conflict continues to resonate with readers worldwide.
- Additionally, Hemingway’s adventurous life, which included experiences as a war correspondent, big-game hunter, and bullfighting enthusiast, provided rich material for his writing. His personal experiences added authenticity and depth to his storytelling, making his works both compelling and thought-provoking.
- In the realm of American literature, Hemingway’s influence can be seen in the works of numerous authors who followed in his footsteps. Writers such as Raymond Carver, Cormac McCarthy, and even contemporary authors owe a debt to Hemingway’s literary techniques and thematic exploration.
In conclusion, the question of how many books Ernest Hemingway wrote is a subject of ongoing debate, reflecting the complexity of his literary output. Regardless of the final tally, there is no doubt that Hemingway’s impact on the world of literature is immeasurable. His novels and short stories continue to be studied, celebrated, and cherished by readers, ensuring that the legacy of this iconic American writer endures for generations to come.